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Education in India passage for Students
1. Education in India is primarily provided by public schools (controlled and funded by the government at three levels: central, state and local) and private schools. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children aged 6 to 14. The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
2. India has made progress in increasing the attainment rate of primary education. In 2011, approximately 75% of the population, aged between 7 and 10 years, was literate. In the 2011 Census, about 73% of the population was literate, with 81% for males and 65% for females. National Statistical Commission surveyed literacy to be 77.7% in 2017–18, 84.7% for male and 70.3% for female. This compares to 1981 when the respective rates were 41%, 53% and 29%. In 1951 the rates were 18%, 27% and 9%. India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions.
3. At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government-run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008 but is projected to be a US $40 billion market.
|Minister of Education||Ramesh Pokhriyal|
|National education budget|
|Budget||3.6% of GDP ($ 120 billion) |
|Primary languages||English, Indian languages|
|System type||Federal, state and private|
|1 April 2010|
4. As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. India has maintained an average enrolment ratio of 95% for students in this age group from the year 2007 to 2014. As an outcome, the number of students in the age group 6-14 who are not enrolled in school has come down to 2.8% in the year academic year 2018 (ASER 2018). Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrolment, and a 19% increase in girl’s enrolment.
5. While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school system. While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school (Grades 9-12). Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.
6. Although there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any accredited educational institution) and all the other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading.
7. In January 2019, India had over 900 universities and 40,000 colleges. In India’s higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum of 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of reservations in India.
Q. On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any ten of the following questions by choosing the most appropriate options.
(a) The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is……
(I) 5 : 7
(ii) 1 : 9
(iii) 7 : 5
(iv) 9 : 7
(b)Pick the option that lists the statements that are NOT TRUE according to the passage.
1. India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.
2. At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system.
3. Report from 2013 stated that there were 329 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India.
4. Maharashtra had 33% reservation in 2014 which is the lowest percentage of reservations in India.
(ii) 2 and 4
(iii) I and 2
(iv) I and 3
Ans: 3 and 4
(c) India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its_____________
(i) overall development
(ii) social development
(iii) Economic development
(iv) Political development
Ans: Economic Development
(d) Based on the statistical data in the passage, which option represents the correct graphical representation of enrolment rate in primary and Secondary schools?
(i) Image 1
(ii) Image 2
(iii) Image 3
(iv) Image 4
Ans: Image 2
(e) According to the table what was the literacy rate of females in the year 2011?
(f) Based on the statistical data in the passage,choose the option that lists the statements that are TRUE with respect to the education policy.
1. enrolment in secondary schools was 69%.
2. National Education Budget passed by the ministry was 3.1%.
3. The literacy rate of women was 69.5% in 2011.
4. As per 2011 census, total literacy rate was 82.2%.
(i) 1 and 4
(ii) 2 and 4
(iii) 3 and 4
(iv) 1 and 3
Ans: (i) 1 and 4
(g) Much of the progress especially in higher education and scientific research has been attributed to________
(i) Private Institutions
(ii) Public Institutions
(iii) Government Institutions
(iv) Semi-Government Institutions
Ans: (ii) Public Institutions
(h) One of the reasons for the poor quality of government-run schools in India is _____
(i) Poor Infrastructure
(ii) Absence of around 25% teachers every day.
(iii) Low enrolment of girls
(iv) No aid given by the government.
Ans: (ii) Absence of around 25% teachers every day.
(i) Mark the state of India with highest percentage of reservations in college and universities.
(iv) Uttar Pradesh
Ans: (i) Maharashtra
(J) Which word in the passage means the same as ‘Registered’ (Para 4)
Ans: (iii) enrolled
(k) Arrange the given sentences in the sequence in which they appeared in the passage.
1. In universities, colleges and similar institutions, there is a maximum of 50% of reservations applicable to the disadvantaged group.
2. Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private.
3. The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools is 7:5.
4. While more than 95% of children attend primary schools, just 40% of adolescents attend secondary schools.
(i) 1, 2, 4, 3
(ii) 4, 1, 2, 3
(iii) 3, 2, 4, 1
(iv) 3, 1, 4, 2
Ans: (iii) 3, 2, 4, 1